HomePosts Tagged "First Aid & Health"

One evening last week, I decided to make my family an apple pie. We had canned apples from last fall and I still had about six jars left in the pantry.  “Perfect!” I thought as I rolled out my pie crust.  I opened the first jar and dumped the apples in, but since I prefer a deep-dish pie, I needed one more jar to fill it to the brim.  Alas, to my dismay, I opened the second jar and I shrieked in horror because the lid wasn’t sealed.  Fearing the dreaded botulism spore, I opened the third.  Now with a more critical and leery eye, I decided these apples looked weird and possessed an odd brown color.  Out they went.  Under the same scrutiny, unfortunately for my pantry, the fourth and fifth met the same fate.  Luckily, the sixth and final jar passed the test and my family’s craving for a sugar high and “circumferential” celebration was satisfied.  I baked the pie, and we all survived.

This occurrence caused me to consider the peril that could be lurking in our pantry.  I realized the seriousness of botulism and how little knowledge I possessed on the topic.  This concerned me greatly because I have a pantry full of canned foods that were either purchased or I had put up myself.   After some research, I verified the fact that canned foods, the kind in actual metal cans not jars, affected with botulism will bulge and rust.  However, jars of food from home canning or some metal cans show zero signs of botulism.  What is even more frightening is that once botulism is contracted,  you inconveniently may require medical attention to survive.  Treatments such as respirators, feeding tubes, and IVs may be necessary for survival.  How many preppers have a respirator on hand and the medical know-how to treat food poisoning such as botulism?

The Facts

Botulism or Clostridium botulinum is found in soil and untreated water throughout the world. It produces spores that survive in improperly preserved or canned food, where they produce a toxin. When eaten, even tiny amounts of this toxin can lead to severe poisoning.

C. botulinum is anaerobic: Oxygen kills it. That’s why, if the spores are already in the food, home-canned foods can be particularly dangerous. The canning process depletes oxygen, and if a high-enough temperature is not maintained for long enough during the cooking and canning process, the spores can survive, and they’ll feed on the food until it’s eaten … by humans.  If you assume the bacteria could not be possibly living in that jar of green beans that came from your grandmother’s garden in 1933, think again.  Microbiologists have found dormant bacterial spores that were thousands of years old.  This is serious, so don’t have and delusions about your iron stomach or intestines of steel.

There are two types of food-borne botulism: The type that affects adults and the type that babies contract from eating honey before they are one year of age.  Simply put, there are traces of botulism in the honey that are taken care of by adult stomach acid, but not yet developed in infants under a year.

As of right now in the U.S., there is an average of 145 cases of botulism annually.  15% are from food, 65% are contracted in infants, and 20% are wound-related.  For this post, I am focusing solely on the food-borne type.  Of the 15% contracted poisoning from food, almost all the cases derive from home canning.  Rarely does anyone sicken from commercially canned goods because the cans are required to undergo a “botulinum cook” at 121 °C (250 °F) for 3 minutes.  Home pressure cookers can only reach 240 °F.  The culprits are generally not high acid foods, but low acid edibles such as beets, green beans, corn, and asparagus.  It is also likely found in cured pork and ham and smoked or raw fish.

Another source of poisoning to be wary of comes from oils that have been infused with garlic, pepper, or other vegetation because botulinum bacteria may seep into the oil from the vegetation.  Pay close attention to dates on the products and once opened, refrigerate.

Normal symptoms of food-borne botulism usually occur between 12–38 hours after consuming the botulinum toxin. However, they can occur as early as 6 hours or as late as 10 days after.

Normal symptoms usually include dry mouth, double and/or blurred vision, difficulty swallowing, muscle weakness, drooping eyelids, difficulty breathing, slurred speech, vomiting, urinary incontinence and sometimes diarrhea. These symptoms may continue to cause paralytic ileus (bowel obstruction) with severe constipation and will lead to body paralysis. The respiratory muscles are affected as well, which may cause death due to respiratory failure. These are all symptoms of the muscle paralysis caused by the bacterial toxin.

No Worries!  I Am A Clean Freak!

Even if you are the most sanitary person on the planet and vacuum yourself out of your house every day please consider the following from http://www.pickyourown.org/botulism.htm

“Clostridium botulinum bacteria exist either as spores or as vegetative cells. The spores, which are dormant and comparable to plant seeds, can survive harmlessly in soil and water for many years. When ideal conditions exist for growth, the spores produce vegetative cells which multiply rapidly and may produce a deadly toxin within three to four days of growth in an environment consisting of:

[list style=”1″ underline=”1″]

  • a moist, low-acid food (like meats, almost all vegetables – including peppers, green beans, corn, etc.)
  • a temperature between 40° and 120°F
  • less than 2 percent oxygen (which occurs in any jar of canned food)


While the incidence is fairly rare, the death rate is high if not treated immediately. Prevention is obviously extremely important. Home canning should follow strict hygienic recommendations to reduce risks. Pressure canners should be used for all low-acid foods, but home pressure canners only reach 240 F, not 250 like commercial equipment, and are not hot enough to kill ALL of the spores. It is the destruction of the active bacteria, and destruction or substantial reduction in numbers of spores along with the creation of an environment that is less conducive to the growth of the remaining spores, that ensures safety.

The botulism spores can only be killed by the high heat which can be obtained in a pressure canner. Water bath canners cannot do this. The toxin (that is produced in anaerobic conditions) can only be destroyed by boiling; so if there is any doubt, boiling the food for 20 minutes after opening the jars adds an additional measure of safety, although this is not always practical. Colorado State University says:

As an added precaution, boil all home-canned vegetables and meats without tasting for 10 minutes plus one minute per 1,000 feet above sea level (15 minutes at 5,000 feet). Boil home-canned spinach and corn 20 minutes before tasting. If the food looks spoiled, foams or has an off odor during heating, discard it.

The processing times in recipes in PickYourOwn.org are from the USDA and Ball Blue Book, and ensure destruction of the largest expected number of heat-resistant microorganisms in home-canned foods. Properly processed, home canned food will be free of spoilage if lids seal and jars are stored below 95°F. Storing jars at 50° to 70°F also enhances retention of quality.

Can’t I simply heat the jars in a water bath canner for a very long time or add acid (vinegar or lemon juice)?

Botulism spores are very heat resistant. They may be destroyed at boiling water temperatures, but extremely long times are required. The higher the canner temperature, the more easily and quickly they are destroyed.

Low acid foods

Therefore, all low-acid foods should be sanitized at temperatures of 240° to 250°F, attainable with pressure canners operated at 10 to 15 PSI. PSI means pounds per square inch of pressure as measured by a gauge. At these temperatures, the time needed to destroy bacteria in low-acid canned food ranges from 20 to 100 minutes. The exact time depends on the kind of food being canned, the way it is packed into jars, and the size of jars.

Acid foods

The time needed to safely process low-acid foods in a boiling water canner ranges from 7 to 11 hours. Such long processing times are not researched and are not recommended. Losses in nutrients and quality would be unacceptable. The time needed to process acid foods in boiling water varies from 5 to 85 minutes.

In addition to the acidity of the food and the heat resistance of the microorganism, the time required for sufficient heat to penetrate all parts of the food in the jar must be considered. Heat is transferred from the outside of the jar through the food and thus is affected by:

The size and shape of the container. Smaller jars heat faster than wider or taller jars. The USDA no longer recommends jars larger than a half-gallon, and typically jars must be 1 quart or smaller.

Amount of liquid. Food containing a large amount of free liquid heats much more quickly than a more solid product.

Piece size. Smaller pieces of food (corn, peas) heat much more quickly than large chunks.

Amount of fat. Fat insulates the food and slows heat transfer. Most canning recipes require little or no added fats or oils.

The type of heating medium being used. Wet steam heats faster than dry air.

The many factors involved make it impossible to estimate the correct processing conditions for any food product. This is especially true for items which are mixtures of food with differing water content, piece size, fat content, or acidity as well as types and numbers of microorganisms present. The establishment of a correct, safe process requires laboratory research by trained scientists. “

Steps to Reduce Risk

  1. If in doubt, throw it out!  Remember, botulism can only be detected 100% in a laboratory.  Don’t take any unneeded risk.
  2. Bulging cans or jars with bulging canning lids should be thrown out immediately and wash your hands after contact.
  3. If food is foamy or has a bad odor throw it out.
  4. Do not decide you are Martha Stewart some weekend and invent your own recipe assuming that adding acidic ingredients such as vinegar or lemon juice or other acids will render your canned food safe.  There is hope for your creative side, however!  Playing around with spice amounts is usually fine because it does not affect the acidity levels.
  5. Avoid canning pumpkin or pumpkin butter because home pressure cookers cannot heat the jars to a temperature required to render such foods safe.
  6. Be careful of who you accept canned foods from.  If your Aunt Dorothy decided to can for the first time to save a bundle on Christmas gifts, but she has a tendency to leave her house without a stitch of clothing on, I would thank her graciously and pitch it in the trash as soon as possible.

A Good Source for Recipes

Use only time- tested recipes that have been in your family for years.  And of course, recipes form Ball Blue Book, USDA, local agricultural and University Extension services, and PickYourOwn.org are tested approved.

Anyone stocking up on food should consider the safety of their stores and clear out and dust off the shelves once in a while.  Being prepared and providing safe, healthy food to your family is the key to any survival plan.  Considering the ramifications of contracting food poisoning such as Botulism, checking and ensuring the quality of your preps is vital.

One evening last week, I decided to make my family an apple pie. We had canned apples from last fall and I still had about six jars left in the

In thinking about preparing your family for survival after a disaster or emergency situation you can’t forget to consider their health. Your family’s health is affected by so much more than having adequate stores of food. Having the best gun for self-defense is great and important, but what if someone in your group comes down with an illness that was easily prevented? What if the killer that attacks you is a sinister little microorganism you never saw coming?

Of course, the health impacts vary with the event that caused the disaster. Flooding and Hurricanes would produce different health issues than a winter storm that knocked out the power. The subject of health though is always one that should be in your short-term plans for SHTF.


What is sanitation? Let’s just make this simple and say that the importance of sanitation is everything to do with getting rid of waste. In a grid-up scenario, most of us have access to a lot of systems to take care of sanitation for us. We have running water, toilets and garbage pick-up or landfills. If you don’t have any of those, you probably wouldn’t be on the internet reading this. Those systems do a pretty nice job of getting the trash and our waste far away from us and that is important. Without Sanitation, diseases quickly spread.

For example, after the 2010 earthquake in Haiti, more than half a million people became ill with Cholera. That disease quickly spread into neighboring countries so bad. Cholera is a water-borne disease. In Haiti, where most people lacked public sewage systems or sanitary latrines after the disaster, people often drink from the same water source they use to bathe and defecate. People ill with cholera develop severe diarrhea and, without immediate treatment, can become dehydrated. The rapid dehydration can cause shock, which can lead to death.

How can we prevent that? Several ways, but one primary concern is to make sure our waste isn’t contaminating our drinking water. To do that, we have to have a plan for taking care of good old number 2.


Bathroom Facilities

The average human produces two to three pints of urine and one pound of feces every day. If you have a family of four or a group of twenty, that adds up quickly. Whatever the solution for removing waste we have to ensure that it will not contaminate any water supplies. A good rule of thumb is to bury waste at least 150 away from the nearest water source.

Here are a few different options for getting that waste safely out-of-the-way.


As long as the septic lines aren’t clogged or backed up, you can still use your toilet. Actually, if you have a septic tank, you could conceivable use this in a grid-down scenario forever. Your toilet just needs water to flush everything down and that is a major reason people fill up bathtubs before a hurricane. The water isn’t so much for drinking, although you could since it came out of the tap (I know what is in my tub so I wouldn’t without a good filter) but you can easily use this to flush your toilet. Simply take a gallon bucket filled with water and pour it into the bowl when you are done. Gravity will do the rest. Assuming there is a radio after the disaster you can listen and see if the sewer lines are still functioning and this is only an option if water is not an issue.

Five Gallon Bucket


5-Gallon bucket toilet

If you have ever been camping in the woods and used the bathroom by squatting you will appreciate that even having a bucket to sit on can make a world of difference. Sure, squatting will work in a pinch (no pun intended) but I am used to sitting on the throne and the next best thing would be sitting on something, anything as opposed to squatting. That’s just me. A five-gallon bucket only needs a proper toilet seat and you are in business. You can take the seat off your existing toilet and there are even kits pre-made with the lid that fits perfectly on your bucket without slipping. While this makes the act seem more like the good old days of your trusty porcelain friend, they do need to be cleaned out. Having dirt or sawdust to cover over the feces will reduce smell and flies and make it so you don’t have to clean as often.

Cat Hole


Cat Hole – No frills

Another camping favorite when we have a bigger group and a chair. The cat hole is most easily dug with a post-hole digger and you want to make it as deep as possible without getting into your water table. The process would be to dig the hole and fill it in with dirt after it becomes about 1/2 full of waste. Once the hole is dug, you can set a chair with a hole in it over the hole, hence the post hole digger since this will make a hole just big enough to drop the important stuff down, but your chair will still fit over it. This process would be repeated often if you had a large group. Don’t have a chair, just take one that you have and cut a hole in it or put your wood working skills to use and make a box with a hole and mount your toilet seat over the hole.

Slit Trench

This would be for larger groups who plan to cover the trench with more permanent toilet facilities. If you are ready for this option, you seem to have sanitation or at least a crew to dig a large trench covered.

No Toilet Paper?

Ah, the subject of so many blog posts and forum threads. Do you have enough toilet paper stored? What will you do when you run out of paper? It will happen eventually and you will be forced to get back to nature… Some items I have thought of are old phone books or catalogs. We’d be covered for a year on just the holiday junk mail catalogs alone. Some other preppers recommend a water sprayer which might work, but I haven’t tried that.


What trash will you have after the SHTF? I can think of lots of trash accumulating in the near term after a disaster and most people will fill up the large hefty bags and sit them on the corner or on the street. If the garbage services are no longer running, burning your trash would be suitable. I would be careful to salvage items that may come in use later which, if you think about it, could be almost anything. Glass or plastic containers that could be used to store water wouldn’t go into the recycling bin anymore. Tin or aluminum cans could also be re-purposed. I can see paper getting burned in the fire, but that may be something to save for the bathroom…

If you have other ideas or tips on sanitation, let us know in the comments. I look forward to hearing from you.


In thinking about preparing your family for survival after a disaster or emergency situation you can’t forget to consider their health. Your family’s health is affected by so much more

There are things we can’t control. What we can control is what we put in your body in the first place. Fresh and healthy whole foods bring the nutritional benefits that can have a true impact on our body and overall health. Choosing quality ingredients over pre-packaged convenience foods is one of the first steps.

Highly-processed foods typically lack fiber and are loaded with added sugar and sodium. Processed foods typically lack any ingredients that create satiety, and typically leave us craving more – which can cause us to overeat. It may seem daunting to prepare every snack fresh, but here are some great options that can easily fit into a busy, modern lifestyle.

In a society that is geared towards instant gratification, the problem with non-processed food is that it isn’t “quick”.  One of the major reasons that people give for eating processed foods over whole foods is that “I needed something quick.”  Don’t let your need for speed sidetrack your healthy eating habits.

RelatedThe vital self-sufficiency lessons our great grand-fathers left us

If you are a prepper, it’s especially important in a disaster situation to have food that you can turn to for quick nutrition.  In a grid-down situation, foods that don’t require cooking can be especially vital.  Some people make the mistake of relying on long-term storage foods that require lengthy cooking times, forgetting that cooking fuel might need to be rationed in order to last throughout the event.  Alternatively, relying on highly processed foods will not provide you with the extra energy you need for the demands that may be placed on you physically in such a situation.

One strategy that you can employ for some instant food gratification is to make a habit of a weekly food-prep session. Spend some time each weekend washing, cutting, and cooking food for the week ahead.  This will give you cut-up veggies, prepared protein sources and washed fruit that you can eat right from the refrigerator.  This session can also include some home-baked goodies for lunch boxes and some complete meals that just need to be reheated at serving time.

Related4 Important Forgotten Skills used by our Ancestors that can help you in any crisis

Next, be sure to have some foods on hand that can be prepared quickly.  Some of the suggestions below are just snacks but when combined with another selection can take the place of a meal:

  1. Nuts
  2. Trail mix:  Mix dried fruit, nuts, seeds, and a handful of real dark chocolate chips
  3. Fresh fruit:  Whatever deliciousness is in season – our selection this week is apples, oranges, and strawberries
  4. Dried Fruit:  Raisins, dried berries, dried apple slices
  5. Salad:  If your veggies are pre-washed you can put this together very quickly.  As well, salad can be pre-assembled.  Simply add protein and dressing at serving time.
  6. Veggies:  carrots, radishes, sugar snap peas, celery, peppers, cucumbers, and cherry tomatoes
  7. Steamed veggies:  Top them with cheese or chopped hard-boiled eggs
  8. Eggs: Nature’s fastest protein – boil, scramble, poach or fry – eggs make a great topper for other “fast foods”
  9. Yogurt Parfait: Top your homemade yogurt with fruit and granola
  10. Leftovers
  11. Cheese: Opt for a healthy version without additives and artificial colors
  12. Smoothies:  Throw fruits, veggies, yogurt and your milk of choice into the blender.  Add a little pure vanilla and some honey.  We like to freeze fruit for this purpose to make a rich thick shake.
  13. Homemade granola cookies:
  14. No-bake haystack cookies:
  15. Hummus:  Serve the dip with veggie sticks, homemade crackers, or tortillas
  16. Applesauce:  Try topping it with homemade granola and vanilla yogurt for a  quick no-cook “apple crisp”
  17. Chocolate Milk:
  18. Apples with natural peanut butter
  19. Frozen Yogurt Berries:  Toss well-washed berries in homemade vanilla yogurt.  Place them on a baking sheet in the freezer for at least 2 hours for a cold, healthy treat
  20. Popcorn
  21. Edamame
  22. Pancakes or Waffles:  Top with fruit for a nutrition boost
  23. Couscous:  This speedy grain only requires the addition of boiling water or broth.  Let it sit for 5 minutes, covered, and you have an instant hearty side dish.  Add some steamed veggies and lean protein to turn it into a one dish meal
  24. Cottage cheese:  Top homemade cottage cheese with fresh fruit
  25. Home-canned food:  Meals like chili, soup, and spaghetti sauce can be pressure canned at home for a delicious healthy “fast food meal”
  26. Fruit Salad: Top it with nuts and a honey-sweetened yogurt for a protein boost
  27. Dill Pickles:  Home-canned, of course
  28. Ants-on-a-log:  Celery sticks stuffed with natural peanut butter then topped with raisins
  29. Quick Greek Salad: Chopped cucumber, peppers and cherry tomatoes with feta cheese and vinaigrette
  30. Homemade Fruitsicles:  Puree fruit that is overripe, then freeze it in Popsicle forms – strawberry-banana is a favorite combo here
  31. Guacamole
  32. Savory snack mix:  Popcorn and nuts sprinkled with Parmesan cheese and spices
  33. Tzatziki:  This yummy Greek garlic and yogurt dip is a satisfying snack with homemade crackers or veggies
  34. Medjool dates and almonds
  35. Frozen grapes
  36. Homemade gazpacho:  Puree tomatoes, peppers, onions, jalapenos, and other seasonal veggies.  Keep in the fridge and serve cold.
  37. Quick Banana Nut Cookies:  Mash 2 overripe bananas well.  Stir in 1 cup of steel-cut oats and 1/2 cup of chopped walnuts or pecans.  Bake at 350 for 15 minutes.
  38. Latte:  Make a delicious latte with a homemade creamer
  39. Mexican Black Bean Salad:  (you can use a can of rinsed organic black beans or beans that you cooked yourself previously)  1 cup of black beans, 1/2 cup of diced tomatoes, 1/2 cup of chopped bell peppers, some fresh cilantro, and lemon juice
  40. Green Apple Salad:  Chopped green apple, red grapes, and walnuts sprinkled with a dressing made from honey, lemon juice and cinnamon

Note: Once upon a time, tuna was on my healthy snacks list.  Post-Fukushima, we don’t eat it anymore.  Pacific tuna caught off the coast of California is tainted with radiation from the disaster.  So-called experts say that the small amount of radiation is safe, but this is a theory that I’m not willing to test on my own family


Your healthy snacks are only as good as their ingredients.  Food that you produce yourself is always the best option, because then you can be absolutely assured of both the seeds and the farming process.  Supplement with items from local farms or the organic section of your grocery store.  When you eat in-season, it is far easier to choose the most nutritious foods and save money.  Carefully wash your produce to get rid of any airborne residue that might remain on the food.

Build your pantry stockpile with long-term storage foods.  Select healthy basics such as nuts, honey, whole grains, and dried fruits.

When you always have quick options available it is far easier to make choices that fuel your body.  What quick and healthy snacks do you feed your family?

Here’s some other self-sufficiency and preparedness solutions recommended for you:

The Lost Ways (The vital self-sufficiency lessons our great grand-fathers left us)
Survival MD (Knowledge to survive any medical crisis situation)
Backyard Liberty (Liberal’s hidden agenda: more than just your guns…)
Alive After the Fall (Build yourself the only unlimited water source you’ll ever need)
The Lost ways II (4 Important Forgotten Skills used by our Ancestors that can help you in any crisis)
The Patriot Privacy Kit (Secure your privacy in just 10 simple steps)

There are things we can't control. What we can control is what we put in your body in the first place.

In cases of emergency and situations, in which the only thing you can think of is survival, personal hygiene first aid is something you need to have previously prepared. To stay clean and keep your hygiene on the necessary level, here are some useful advices, you can apply to make your survival easier and less painful. The most important ingredient you need to have is water. How to be prepared to stay alive and have the necessary water for drinking, washing and cleaning is a problem, which isn’t easily resolved. If you have the necessary materials to keep your body clean, you can use water only for drinking and save it as much as possible for staying alive.

If you have some essential tools, packed with you, your survival in hurricanes, disasters and emergency situations won’t be that hard. Keeping a fire starting kit, some napkins, soap, wet wipes, towels and enough quantity of water for drinking, is very important. If you have access to some water resource, no matter if the water may be salty or inappropriate for drinking, with some matches and distillation (video below) you can boil it and make it usable for hygiene and drinking. Water from oceans and seas, which is salty and polluted can’t be only boiled, disinfected and used for drinking unless you remove the salt first by distillation.

You can store your water for drinking in plastic bottles, but each year they need to be refilled with fresh water. One gallon for each person a day is the necessary quantity for survival, according to some research. In this quantity is included the water you will use for drinking, cleaning, washing and etc. The sterilized water can also be used, as it has five years shelf live. You can also sterilize your water using some purification tablets and other sources for water disinfection.

Keeping a roll of gauze, wet wipes, clean cloths is also important. These items will help you keep your hygiene on a considerably good level. Keep with you a few packs of aspirin, pills used for painkillers and various purposes, antibiotics for emergency situations, toilet rolls, medical tape. All these pills and items are important for your survival and personal hygiene first aid. A sharp pocket knife or other cutting knife and scissors are also important tools, you will definitely need at some point of your survival.

Baking soda can be used for many purposes and is a useful product  you should keep. If you don’t have shampoos and soap, in emergencies, baking soda can be used as a substitute for disinfecting your scalp, some wounds and infections. If you keep enough rubbing alcohol you can use it for cleaning wounds, skin infections, irritations and different other purposes. It is also an essential part of your personal hygiene first aid.

If you don’t have enough water to take a shower and clean your body, you can search for some natural brooklet or any natural source of water, even the sea or ocean. The water needs to be boiled to kill all microbes and bacteria it has, if you want to use it for drinking. This can be done through the use of matches and some wood. If you don’t have enough water for washing and cleaning, you can use your wet wipes to disinfect your body. All infections and bites from insects and animals on your skin, can be stopped with a clean cloth dipped in rubbing alcohol. If you don’t have such clean the wounds with soap and water.

To survive in emergency situations like floods, earthquake, hurricane and others, you need to have a prepared first aid kit. Toilet paper, wet wipes, pills, soap and bottles with water are essential for survival. Keeping your personal hygiene on the necessary level, which includes washing your hands, taking a shower, dental hygiene and wound disinfection and care, is very important. Cleaning your hands before and after preparing of the food, before eating, after going to the toilet, after touching rubbish, before disinfecting wounds and in other such occasions is of utter importance. If you don’t take care of the your personal hygiene, you risk getting infected with some disease or illness and make your  survival tougher.

Bathing and cleaning  of your hands should be done only with clean water. If you don’t have purified water or access to some natural source of water, you may inflict more damage on yourself, washing and bathing with contaminated water. You can take care of wounds and infections, cleaning them with soap and water or rubbing alcohol if you have such. After irrigating the wound, it should be covered with a clean cloth to be kept protected from further contamination. Washing your hands with running water and soap is the best way to disinfect them and keep them protected from bacteria. If you don’t have soap and running water, wet wipes can be used instead. Washing your hands is very important, because all microbes and bacteria are spread with hands, especially when eating.

In cases of emergency and situations, in which the only thing you can think of is survival, personal hygiene first aid is something you need to have previously prepared. To